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First NAWQA Diatom Taxonomy Harmonization Workshop
May 10-12, 1999
 
Introduction

      One of the greatest challenges facing large-scale bioassessment programs is the adoption of a unified taxonomic system for institutions generating biological data. Changing taxonomic concepts and limited synoptic literature often propagate multiple naming conventions for individual taxa. This problem can be remedied through regular and organized dialogue between primary taxonomists involved in biotic analysis.

      As part of the Patrick Center for Environmental Research (PCER) Phycology Section’s cooperative agreement with the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) program, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP) hosted a taxonomic workshop from 10-12 May 1999 with scientists from the Patrick Center and The University of Louisville. These two institutions perform the majority of algal analysis for the NAWQA program. In attendance were senior scientists: Dr. Donald Charles (PCER) and Dr. Jan Stevenson (U of L); database and management experts: Pat Cotter (PCER), Frank Acker (PCER), Candia Knowles (PCER) and Dr. Roger Sweets (U of L); and taxonomic specialists: Todd Clason (PCER), Lont Marr (PCER) and Kalina Manoylova (U of L).

      The guiding principle of the workshop was to create a foundation of concepts and procedures to facilitate taxonomic harmonization between the two institutions. Toward this goal, lists of taxa in databases from both institutions were carefully matched so that taxon names, numbers and authorities corresponded correctly, a process that began several weeks before the workshop. After creating an initial list, both institutions added new names, modified existing names, and rectified errors. Multiple queries of both databases were required to identify discrepancies in names used for the same taxon.

      During the workshop, a list of 500 names and authorities was generated, representing all taxa at >1% abundance in NAWQA study units analyzed by the PCER and U of L. This compilation was examined in detail by taxonomists to facilitate data consistency between the two institutions. A protocol for future taxonomic conversations was also set, involving electronic image exchange and email-based dialogue. Ideas for advanced taxonomic workshops for special taxonomic groups and issues were also discussed.

      The basis of the workshop was a list of common diatom taxa names used by U of L and the ANSP (see attached: Taxa Harmonization Table). These commonly observed taxa were discussed by analysts at both institutions and rated based on the degree of certainty associated with a literature-based concept. Diatoms with a high degree of certainty were rated with a 1— these taxa were well represented with images in the literature, and the analysts felt the correct name was consistently used by both institutions. Taxa for which there was a conceptual consensus between analysts, but some question as to morphological variability or similarity with other taxa were rated with a 2. While the names for these taxa corresponded between the PCER and U of L, careful documentation was recommended to preserve consistency. Taxa were also rated with a 2 when one institution had not observed specimens and therefore had not carefully reviewed the pertinent literature. Unidentified diatoms with temporary designations and documentation were rated with a 3. Abundant taxa with a 3 rating may be the subject of future workshops. Similarly, diatoms were rated as 4 when analysts considered them “problem” taxa requiring detailed discussion. Types of problems included improper splitting or lumping categories, misused or invalid names, or simply taxa for which analysts disagree strongly on concept. In the future, the taxonomic notes field (Taxa Notes) will be used for analysts as a location to record synonymous naming conventions, literature transfers, and particular taxonomic characteristics, thereby facilitating problem resolution.

      Near the end of the workshop, analysts began exchanging images and observing specimens in the lab (Figs. 1 and 2). A number of problem or unknown taxa were discussed, and some taxonomic questions were resolved. This was also a venue to discuss efficient transfer of images and taxonomic information between institutions. Overall, the analysts agreed that their taxonomic concepts had been honed, and were readied for future problem solving.

      The 500 compiled taxa representing diatom species at an abundance >1%, including maximum abundance in counts by both institutions, a certainty rating of 1-4, and notes concerning particular taxonomic considerations was compiled by the ANSP and U of L.



 
Second NAWQA Diatom Taxonomy Harmonization Workshop
November 9-11, 1999
 
Introduction

      In a continuing effort to maintain taxonomic consistency between institutions, the Academy of Natural Sciences (ANS) hosted a meeting with scientists from the Patrick Center for Environmental Research (PCER) Phycology Section, and Michigan State University (MSU). This is the second meeting in an ongoing series of consultations among scientists analyzing algal samples for the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). In attendance were senior scientists: Dr. Donald Charles (PCER) and Dr. Jan Stevenson (MSU); database and management experts: Pat Cotter (PCER), Frank Acker (PCER), and Candia Knowles (PCER); and taxonomic specialists: Todd Clason (PCER), Lont Marr (PCER) and Kalina Manoylova (MSU).

      One of the main products of the May 1999 meeting was a workshop report (ANS Report No. 99-14) that included a list of 500 names and authorities representing all diatom taxa observed at >1% abundance in NAWQA study units analyzed by phycologists at the PCER and University of Louisville (Jan Stevenson=s lab has since moved to MSU). This list also provided a rating system to indicate the level of certainty regarding individual literature-based taxa designations. The primary goal of the November workshop was to complete a final inventory of all the taxa found in NAWQA 1994-start samples (collected in 1995-1998). The list includes 1,131 taxa names, along with the master NADED ID numbers, and specific image citations (Appendix 1). While the list is immediately useful to taxonomists at the PCER and MSU, it is also indicative of the large volume of synthesized data from both institutions that is now accessible through the PCER Phycology Section NADED database system. This information will be a comprehensive resource for all NAWQA biologists having specific questions regarding particular diatom taxa. It will also be a foundation for maintaining consistency among taxonomists. Finally, the ability to create specific taxonomic lists through database queries will greatly facilitate discussions concerning taxonomic transfers over time, which will be an important topic during the May 2000 workshop.

      Another important accomplishment of the November meeting was the direct microscopic examination of type material. Consultation of type material helps solidify taxonomic concepts through examination of diagnostic features that are difficult to observe in photographs or drawings. By performing this examination as a group, analysts could agree on which features are most important and should be emphasized to achieve consistency. The ANS Diatom Herbarium is the largest in North America, and of prime importance in maintaining the quality of analysis offered by PCER and MSU diatomists.

      During the workshop, taxonomic analysts also examined unknown diatoms. “Unknown taxa” are specimens either not yet described in the literature, or not yet designated with a specific reference by the analyst. Group examination of unknown material is crucial to avoid multiple unknown designations for single unknown species, and to solve taxonomic issues. Although it was not a prime goal of the workshop, several problems concerning unknown taxa were rectified and subsequently amended in the database.



 
Third NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy
May 1-3, 2000
 
Introduction

      The Third NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy was held at The Academy of Natural Sciences on 1-3 May 2000. Dr. R.J. Stevenson and Kalina Manoylova of Michigan State University; Dr. Donald F. Charles, Frank Acker, Todd A. Clason, Patrick Cotter, Candia Knowles, Kalina Manoylova, Lont Marr, Eduardo A. Morales, Marina Potapova, and Dr. Charles W. Reimer of The Academy of Natural Sciences= Patrick Center for Environmental Research; and William R. Cody, a private consultant based in the State of Ohio, participated in the workshop.

      The primary purpose of the workshop was to develop and agree on nomenclature to use when analyzing NAWQA 1997-start algae samples, collected in 1999-2001. Other objectives are summarized in the attached list of Agenda items (Appendix 1). Results of discussion of these other items are reported in separate memos and are not included here.

      The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program concentrates on the study of nearly 60 major watersheds in the United States. Each of these watersheds is called a Study Unit (SU). Approximately 15 to 20 SUs are investigated at a time. To date, three sets of SUs, or "starts," have been collected: the 1991, 1994, and 1997-starts. Algal samples from each SU are collected over a three-year period, usually beginning after two years of planning and site selection. For various reasons, different taxonomic systems were used for analysis of diatoms from the 1991 and 1994-start samples. Now that we are ready to begin analysis of 1997-start samples (collected in 1999-2001), the Academy of Natural Sciences (ANS) has decided to review names of all diatom taxa found in NAWQA samples to update them, following the philosophy and criteria described below. These names will be used by all NAWQA diatom analysts for the 1997-start samples. The list will be reviewed again in three years, and updated before beginning analysis of the 2000-start samples.

      The primary outcome of the workshop is a list of 1994-start taxa names, the taxonomic names that some will be changed to for the 1997-start sample analysis, and the rationale for the changes (Appendices 2 and 3).

      Appendix 2 contains four columns. The first lists the 1994-start taxa; the official list of all names used for 1994-start samples. The second column contains new names that have been proposed for taxa in the 1994-start list (first column). The third column (labeled “category”) contains the final number assigned to each new taxon (1 or 3, see above). Finally, a fourth column lists bibliographical references for the description of new genera and transfer of species.  The rationale for including or excluding a new name in the 1997-start list is described in Appendix 3. Appendix 2 was compiled mainly by Todd A. Clason, Marina Potapova and Eduardo A. Morales. Analysts involved in discussions during this part of the workshop were Todd A. Clason, William R. Cody, Kalina Manoylova, Lont Marr, Eduardo A. Morales, Marina Potapova, and with intermittent advice from R.J. Stevenson and Charles W. Reimer.

      Workshop participants agreed to send this list to at least two diatom taxonomy specialists for review and comment.

      In addition to the list mentioned above, we also discussed specific issues concerning the accuracy of some names used for 1991-start counts. Marina Potapova had examined 1991 count data prior to the workshop and concluded that some names had been misapplied or were confusing. Participants reviewed each taxonomic issue in detail using the Academy's image database, photographs of NAWQA specimens, various materials from the Diatom Herbarium, and the help of C.W. Reimer. Dr. Potapova incorporated results of these deliberations into Appendix 3. Eduardo Morales also presented LM and SEM photographs from his dissertation based on material from Connecticut (USA) freshwater lakes. This latter resource was used to help clarify taxonomy in the genus Fragilaria sensu lato.



 
Fourth NAWQA Taxonomy Workshop
October 16-18, 2000
 
Introduction

      The Fourth NAWQA Diatom Taxonomy Workshop was held at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia on October 16-18, 2000. Specialists participating in the workshop were: Dr. R. Jan Stevenson and Kalina Manoylova from Michigan State University; Dr. Rex L. Lowe from Bowling Green State University; Dr. Sophia I. Passy from the U.S.G.S Ecological Survey and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation; William R. Cody, environmental consultant based in Ohio; Dr. Loren L. Bahls, environmental consultant based in Helena, Montana; Todd A. Clason, environmental consultant based in Seattle, Washington. From the Patrick Center for Environmental Research’s Phycology Section at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Dr. Marina Potapova, Dr. Eduardo A. Morales, Dr. Donald F. Charles, Diane M. Winter, Karin C. Ponader, and Frank W. Acker also participated and organized the mentioned workshop.

      The three previous NAWQA taxonomy workshops had the overall objectives of harmonizing taxa names used in the ANSP and University of Louisville/University of Michigan laboratories, identifying reference images for each taxon, and agreeing on up-to-date nomenclature to use when analyzing NAWQA 1997-start samples (See Clason and Charles, 1999; 2000; and Morales and Potapova, 2000). This fourth NAWQA Diatom Taxonomy Workshop focused on issues concerning the taxonomy of problematic Navicula and Gomphonema species. Taxa that received most attention during the workshop occur commonly in NAWQA material and are often difficult to identify during routine light microscopy. Future workshops will focus in a similar way on other genera.

      Dr. Potapova selected taxa in need of further taxonomic investigation based on her review of existing NAWQA data. During her preparation of data sets for ecological analyses, she had many sample counts in which some taxa seemed to have been either misidentified or lumped under a single name. On the other hand, she reviewed many slides containing type material and found that several taxa listed in NAWQA counts were in fact misidentified. Based on these observations, she compiled a list of “problematic” taxa within Navicula and Gomphonema. In most of the cases, “problematic” taxa corresponded to groups of species that may be easily confused with each other because they have similar diagnostic characteristics.  Such problematic taxa were arranged into units referred to as “complexes”:

Complex 1
- Navicula tripunctata
- N. tripunctata var. schizonemoides
- N. recens
- N. sp. 5 ANS WRC
- N. margalithii
- N. erifuga
- N. cari
- Bill Cody’s N. sp. 5

Complex 2
- Navicula cryptotenella
- N. menisculus
- N. radiosa var. tenella
- N. cincta var. rostrata

Complex 3
- Navicula notha
- N. leptostriata
- N. heimansioides

Complex 4
- Navicula luzonensis
- N. biconica
- N. subminuscula

Complex 5
- Gomphonema pumilum spp.

Complex 6
- Gomphonema minutum
- G. kobayasii

      During the workshop, laboratory sessions were held following each one or two presentations and concentrated on examination of type slides from the Diatom Herbarium at ANSP and/or permanent slides from NAWQA study units. During laboratory sessions, intensive discussion and literature search led, in many cases, to the application of correct names to problematic taxa or to the conclusion that more research was needed in order to be confident about the identity of certain species and their varieties. During observation of type slides and laboratory discussions, Dr. Charles W. Reimer’s participation was often crucial in reaching a decision regarding the application of a name. He also provided references, material, and translations from German for many of the taxa covered during the workshop.

      This report includes the outcomes of discussions arranged by complex and plates to support decisions made during such discussions. These plates should be used by NAWQA taxonomists as a reference for future identification of depicted taxa. Plates include images presented before the workshop and during presentations, images scanned from bibliographical references, and images taken during and after the workshop. Morphological terminology used in this report follows Barber and Haworth (1981) and Cox (1996).



 
Fifth NAWQA Taxonomy Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy
June 13-15, 2001
 
Introduction

      The Fifth NAWQA Diatom Taxonomy Workshop was held at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia on 13-15 June 2001. Specialists participating in the workshop were: Kalina Manoylov from Michigan State University; Dr. Rex L. Lowe from Bowling Green State University; William R. Cody, environmental consultant based in Ohio; Dr. Loren L. Balhs, environmental consultant based in Helena, Montana; Todd A. Clason, environmental consultant based in Seattle, Washington. Dr. Marina Potapova, Dr. Eduardo A. Morales, Dr. Donald F. Charles, Diane M. Winter, Karin C. Ponader, and Frank W. Acker from the Patrick Center for Environmental Research’s Phycology Section at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, also participated in the workshop and helped to organize it.

      The first, second, and third NAWQA taxonomy workshops had the overall objectives of harmonizing taxa names used in the ANSP and University of Louisville/University of Michigan laboratories, identifying reference images for each taxon, and agreeing on up-to-date nomenclature to use when analyzing NAWQA 1994 and 1997-start samples (See Clason and Charles, 1999; 2000; and Morales and Potapova, 2000). The fourth NAWQA Diatom Taxonomy Workshop focused on issues concerning the taxonomy of some problematic Navicula and Gomphonema species. Taxa that received most attention during that workshop occur commonly in NAWQA material and are often difficult to identify during routine light microscopy (Morales, 2001).

      This fifth workshop concentrates on additional taxa of the genus Navicula. These problematic taxa were arranged in complexes, which comprise taxa morphologically similar to each other and very difficult to distinguish during routine analyses of NAWQA samples.

The complexes were the following:

Complex 1 (Presented by L. Bahls)
Navicula caterva
N. phyllepta
N. reichardtiana


Complex 2 (Presented by W. Cody)
Navicula incerta
N. odiosa
N. salinicola


Complex 3 (Presented by K. Manoylov)
Navicula kotschyi
N. texana
N. savannahiana


Complex 4 (Presented by M. Potapova/D. Winter)
Navicula lateropunctata
N. aikenensis
N. sanctaecrucis


Complex 5 (Presented by R. Lowe)
Navicula schroeteri
N. schroeteri var. symmetrica
N. schroeteri var. escambia


Complex 6 (Presented by K. Ponader)
Navicula germainii
N. viridula
N. viridula var. linearis
N. viridula var. rostellata

      During the workshop, laboratory sessions were held following sets of presentations. They concentrated on examination of type slides from the ANSP Diatom Herbarium and/or permanent slides from NAWQA study units. During these sessions, intensive discussion and literature search led in many cases to the application of correct names to problematic taxa, or to the conclusion that more research was needed in order to be confident about the identity of certain species and their varieties. During observation of type slides and laboratory discussions, Dr. Charles W. Reimer’s participation was often crucial in reaching a decision regarding the application of a name. He also provided references and material for some of the taxa covered
during the workshop.

      K. Manoylov and D. Winter presented images and documentation of unknown taxa that they had encountered during analyses of NAWQA material. Also, K. Ponader presented an unknown taxon from the Piedmont physiographic region of New Jersey. Workshop participants discussed these images and documentation. Permanent slides in which the mentioned taxa had been found were analyzed in some instances.

      The present report includes the outcomes of discussions arranged by taxonomic complex and supporting plates. Plates with unknown taxa are also presented. These plates should be used by NAWQA taxonomists as a reference for future identification of depicted taxa. Plates include images taken during and after the workshop and taken by participants as well as images scanned from bibliographical references. Morphological terminology used in this report follows Barber and Haworth (1981) and Cox (1996).

      E. Morales prepared a document containing taxonomic rules to guide the way in which new and unknown taxa are reported in NAWQA counts and to facilitate the documentation process. He sent a draft of this document to workshop participants before the workshop. The document was discussed during the workshop and corrections and additions were made. A final version of this document is presented as Appendix 1. It should be used by all analysts during analyses of NAWQA material.

      Workshop participants also reviewed the 1997-start diatom list and made corrections to misspellings and transcription errors that occurred during the preparation of the Third Workshop Report (Morales and Potapova, 2000). These corrections were based on careful reexamination of literature and on discussions on each one of the issues. The revised version of this list is presented as Appendix 2. This list should be strictly followed for analysis of 1997-start samples and any changes avoided at all costs. Additions of new taxa can be made only through E. Morales at ANSP.



 
Sixth NAWQA Taxonomy Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy
October 19-21, 2001
 
Introduction

      The Sixth NAWQA Diatom Taxonomy Workshop was held at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia on October 19-21, 2001. Specialists participating in the workshop were: Dr. R. Jan Stevenson and Kalina Manoylov from Michigan State University; Dr. Rex L. Lowe from Bowling Green State University; William R. Cody, environmental consultant based in Ohio; Dr. Evelyn E. Gaiser, Christine M. Taylor, Franco A. Tobias, and Ania H. Wachnicka from Florida International University, Florida; Dr. Yangdong Pan from Portland State University, Oregon. Dr. Marina G. Potapova, Dr. Eduardo A. Morales, Dr. Donald F. Charles, Diane M. Winter, Karin C. Ponader, and Frank W. Acker from the Patrick Center for Environmental Research’s Phycology Section at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, also participated in the workshop and helped to organize it.

            This sixth workshop concentrates on the genus Gomphonema, of which several morphologically variable species and varieties occur in NAWQA material. Some of these taxa were arranged in the following complexes:

Complex 1 (Presented by W. Cody)
Gomphonema minutum (Agardh) Agardh
G. kobayasii Kociolek et Kingston
G. pumilum (Grunow) Reichardt et Lange-Bertalot

Complex 2 (Presented by E. Morales and K. Ponader)
Gomphonema parvulum Kützing and varieties

Complex 3 (Presented by M. Potapova)
Gomphonema angustatum Kützing and related taxa

Complex 4 (Presented by K. Manoylov)
Gomphonema affine Kützing
G. insigne Gregory

      An electronic version of the above list was sent to workshop participants. They were asked to choose a complex and prepare a presentation including the historical background of the taxa, different views in the literature as to their taxonomic position, affinities with closely related entities, features used for identification, and relevant ecological information that might be helpful in the characterization of the taxa. Each presentation was to last 15 minutes and be followed by brief discussions.

      During the workshop, laboratory sessions were held following sets of presentations. These concentrated on examination of type slides from the ANSP Diatom Herbarium and/or permanent slides from NAWQA study units. During these sessions, intensive discussion and literature search led in many cases to the application of correct names to problematic taxa, or to the conclusion that more research was needed in order to be confident about the identity of certain species and their varieties. During observation of type slides and laboratory discussions, Dr. Charles W. Reimer’s participation was often crucial in reaching a decision regarding the application of a name. He also provided references and material for some of the taxa covered during the workshop.

      In addition, two lectures were presented. Dr. R. Lowe presented the lecture entitled “Gomphonema: General aspects of its biology and ecology,” which started the presentation sessions of the workshop and dealt with current concepts in the study of Gomphonema. These concepts included aspects of cell biology, reproduction, and ecology of these organisms, as well as a discussion on recent taxonomical trends in gomphonemoid diatoms. The second lecture, presented by Dr. E. Gaiser dealt with gomphonemoid diatoms found during her research on diatoms from the Everglades, Florida. The morphs treated in this second lecture and a discussion on their taxonomy written by Dr. Gaiser and collaborators are included in this report.

      The present report also includes the outcomes of discussions arranged by taxonomic complex with supporting plates. These plates should be used by NAWQA taxonomists as a reference during routine counts. Plates include images taken by participants during and after the workshop and images scanned from bibliographical references. Morphological terminology used in this report follows Barber and Haworth (1981) and Cox (1996).



 
Seventh NAWQA Taxonomy Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy
May 10-13, 2002
 
Introduction

      The Seventh NAWQA Diatom Taxonomy Workshop was held at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia on May 10-13, 2002. Specialists participating in the workshop were Dr. R. Jan Stevenson and Kalina Manoylov from Michigan State University; Dr. Rex L. Lowe from Bowling Green State University; William R. Cody, environmental consultant based in Ohio; Dr. Peter A. Siver from Connecticut College; P. B. Hamilton from the Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa; Dr. Yangdong Pan and Christine Weilhoefer from Portland State University; Dr. Sarah Spaulding from the University of Colorado. Dr. Marina G. Potapova, Dr. Eduardo A. Morales, Dr. Donald F. Charles, Diane M. Winter, Karin C. Ponader, Frank W. Acker and Mark Schadler from the Patrick Center for Environmental Research’s Phycology Section at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, also participated in the workshop and collaborated in its organization.

      The seventh workshop concentrated on problematic species of the genus Nitzschia, a genus that has many representatives in NAWQA samples.  Some of these taxa were arranged in the following complexes:

Complex 1 (Presented by K. Manoylov)
Nitzschia biacrula Hohn et Hellerman
N. dissipata (Kützing) Grunow
N. dissipata var. media (Hantzsch) Grunow
N. dissipata var. oligotraphenta Lange-Bertalot
Nitzchia sociabilis Hustedt
N. recta Hantzsch

Complex 2 (Presented by D. Winter)
Nitzschia amphibia Grunow
N. amphibia f. frauenfeldii (Grunow) Lange-Bertalot
N. amphibioides Hustedt

Complex 3 (Presented by W. Cody)
Nitzschia tropica Hustedt
N. fonticola Grunow
N. fossilis Grunow

Complex 4 (Presented by R. Lowe)
Nitzschia frustulum (Kützing) Grunow
N. inconspicua Grunow

Complex 5 (Presented by K. Ponader)
Nitzschia palea (Kützing) Smith complex

      During the workshop, laboratory sessions were held following sets of presentations. These concentrated on examination of NAWQA permanent slides from the ANSP Diatom Herbarium. For each of the complexes, a group of participants (with the participant in charge of that complex as the leader) collected digital images and documented them in an EXCEL spreadsheet. Intensive discussion and literature search led in many cases to the application of correct names to problematic taxa, or to the conclusion that more research was needed in order to be confident about the identity of certain species and their varieties. During observation of ANSP Diatom Herbarium slides and laboratory discussions, Dr. Charles W. Reimer’s participation was very helpful.

      In addition to the presentations of the complexes, three lectures were presented during the workshop. The first lecture was presented by P. Hamilton and it was entitled: “Nitzschia: General aspects of its Biology and Ecology.” Many aspects of the morphology of nitzschioid groups were highlighted in this presentation with emphasis on the construction of the canal raphe and its implications for the taxonomy of species in this genus. Both light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were considered. A Microsoft Power Point presentation of this lecture is included in the electronic version of this report.

      The second presentation, by Dr. S. Spaulding, was entitled: “Origin of the canal raphe: one or many?” Dr. Spaulding concentrated on the evolution of the canal raphe in different groups of diatoms possessing such a structure, including Nitzschia. Likewise, a Power Point presentation containing this lecture is presented in the electronic version of this report.

      The third lecture, presented by Dr. P. Siver, was: “Nitzschia species (and other diatoms and chrysophytes) from selected localities in the Cape Cod, MA Region.” Dr. Siver talked about the biogeography and distribution of some diatoms and chrysophytes from Cape Cod, and discussed some difficulties in the identification of nitzschioid diatoms from that area. His Power Point presentation is included in the electronic version of the report.

      The present report also includes the outcomes of discussions arranged by taxonomic complex with supporting plates. These plates were made using pictures drawn from participant’s presentations, pictures taken by participants during the workshop and additional pictures taken by the senior author of this report. The plates presented herein should be used by NAWQA taxonomists as a reference during routine counts. Morphological terminology used in this report follows Barber and Haworth (1981) and Cox (1996).



 
Eighth NAWQA Taxonomy Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy
October 25-27, 2002
 
Introduction

      The Eighth NAWQA Diatom Taxonomy Workshop was held at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia on October 25-27, 2002. Specialists participating in the workshop were Kalina Manoylov from Michigan State University; Dr. Rex L. Lowe from Bowling Green State University; William R. Cody, environmental consultant based in Ohio; and Paul B. Hamilton from the Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa. Dr. Marina G. Potapova, Dr. Eduardo A. Morales, Dr. Donald F. Charles, Diane M. Winter, Karin C. Ponader, Frank W. Acker, Mark Schadler and Kathleen Sprouffske from the Patrick Center for Environmental Research’s Phycology Section at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia also participated in the workshop and/or collaborated in its organization.

      The Eighth workshop focused on updating the diatom taxa list used for the analysis of NAWQA material to reflect recent taxonomical changes from the literature. Specifically, the transfers of taxa to new genera and the review of recent concepts of some problematic taxa in different genera were considered.

      All the new genera published in the literature and pertinent to the 1997-Start NAWQA Diatom Taxa List were reviewed by workshop participants. The updated list, known as the 2001-Start list, ultimately records the consensus of the participants as to whether to adopt proposed changes and includes annotations with justifications and/or helpful comments. This list is presented in Appendix 1. A list of official names to be used by NAWQA analysts appears in Appendix 2. Names will be added to this list from time to time as new species are encountered during sample analysis, but they must first be approved by the Taxonomic Coordinator (E. Morales) following procedures and criteria in Appendix 1 of the Fifth NAWQA Report (Morales, 2001b).

      Both, Appendices 1 and 2 are presented on a CD accompanying this report. This CD format was preferred over the printed version because the lists are very long.



 
Ninth NAWQA Workshop – Soft Algae
December 13-15, 2002
 
Introduction

      The Ninth USGS NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy was held in the Patrick Center for Environmental Research (PCER) at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia ANSP) December 13th through 15th, 2002. Participants in the workshop included algal taxonomic specialists Dr. Rex L. Lowe, Bowling Green State University, Dr. Jeffrey Johansen, John Carroll University, Julie Hambrook, USGS, Kalina Manoylov, Dr. R. Jan Stevenson, Michigan State University, and Dr. Thomas Smith, Waynesburg College. Frank W. Acker, Dr. Marina Potapova, Dr. Donald Charles, Dr. Eduardo Morales, Mark Schadler, Diane M. Winter, and Michael E. Kachur from the PCER’s Phycology Section also participated in the workshop.

      Previous NAWQA Algal Taxonomy Workshops focused on harmonization of diatom names; the objective of this workshop was to review taxonomy of the soft-bodied, non-diatom algal forms found in the NAWQA samples. The taxonomic groups reviewed included the cyanophytes (also referred to as blue-green algae or cyanobacteria) and the red algae. Updating of primary algal references and monographs used for NAWQA sample analyses was also accomplished (see agenda in Appendix A). A major goal of the workshop was to review the list of species from USGS NAWQA algal analyses and develop a consistent list of soft-bodied algae to be used for current analyses (i.e., the 2001-Start NAWQA Non-Diatom Taxonomic List). Another goal was to produce a table of nomenclatural changes that will be applied to previous algal results.



 
Tenth NAWQA Taxonomy Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy
June 13-15, 2002
 
Introduction

      The Tenth NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy was held at the Academy Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP) on June 13-15, 2003. Workshop participants were Kalina Manoylov from Michigan State University; Dr. Rex L. Lowe from Bowling Green State University; William R. Cody, environmental consultant based in Ohio; Paul B. Hamilton from the Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, and Dr. Evelyn E. Gaiser from Florida International University, Florida. Dr. Marina G. Potapova, Dr. Eduardo A. Morales, Dr. Donald F. Charles, Diane M. Winter, Karin C. Ponader, Frank W. Acker, and Mark Schadler from the Patrick Center for Environmental Research’s Phycology Section at ANSP also participated in the workshop and/or collaborated in its organization.

      The Tenth workshop focused on the taxonomy of Achnanthes-like taxa that are difficult to identify under the light microscope. The following complexes were covered:

Complex 1 (Presented by K. Manoylov)
Psammothidium bioretii and allies

Complex 2 (Presented E. Morales)
Planothidium daui and allies

Complex 3 (Presented by R. Lowe and W. Cody)
Planothidum rostratum and allies

Complex 4 (Presented by D. Winter)
Achnanthidium exiguum and varieties

      An electronic version of the list of complexes was sent to workshop participants before the workshop. They were asked to choose a complex and prepare a presentation covering the historical background of the taxa, different views in the literature as to their taxonomic position, relationship with morphologically similar entities, critical issues regarding identifications, diagnostic features, and relevant ecological information that might be helpful in the characterization of the taxa. Workshop presentations lasted approximately one hour, including a question and answer/discussion session. Morning presentations were followed by afternoon laboratory sessions in which NAWQA and ANSP Diatom Herbarium material were analyzed and literature was reviewed. Summary sessions took place at the end of each laboratory session. In these sessions, participants agreed on taxonomic criteria and useful tips for identifying the examined taxa.

      In addition to the complexes listed above, Dr. E. Gaiser gave a presentation covering Achnanthes-like taxa present in samples from the Everglades. Her presentation was followed by a discussion and observation of some of Everglades material.  Unlike previous reports, one or more participants were in charge not only of preparing a presentation about a taxonomic complex, but also of writing a report after the event. These reports were reviewed by ANSP Phycology Section staff. Workshop participants intend to publish the sections presented in this report as separate scientific papers in peer reviewed journals.

      The report is divided into sections, one for each of the complexes treated during the workshop. Each section is organized according to the following topics:

  • Definition and background of taxonomic issues. In this part, the reasons for choosing
  • Material. This is a summarized version of the slides and samples analyzed before, during and/or after the workshop
  • Observations and literature review. Here, results of observations are reported as well a literature review of the history and other aspects of the taxa within a complex.
  • Resolution of taxonomic issues. This part has three components:
    1. Names to be used for analysis of NAWQA samples. Here the accepted (by agreement during the workshop) names of taxa within the complex are listed accompanied by references and illustrations presented in each section. Patrick Center for Environmental Research for Academy of Natural Sciences
    2. Criteria for identifying taxa at the LM level. This component contains criteria and guidelines to be used for identification of the different taxa.
    3. Correction to counts in NADED NAWQA-related records. Here specific changes to NAWQA-related databases are listed.



 
11th USGS NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy
November 21-24, 2003
 
Introduction

      The eleventh USGS NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy was held in the Biology Department of John Carroll University November 21st through 24th. This was the second workshop devoted to soft-bodied, non-diatom forms (the 9th was the original soft-bodied, non-diatom workshop). The main focus of the workshop was a series of lectures by Dr. Jeří Komárek of the University of South Bohemia in the Czech Republic.

      Dr. Komárek’s lectures included the modern cyanobacteria classification and in particular the group Oscillatoriales, filamentous forms without heterocytes and true branching. Dr. Rex L. Lowe (Bowling Green State University) re-examined USGS NAWQA samples with large populations of the Oscillatorialean taxon Hydrocoleum brebissonii, a taxon recently revised with characters not considered previously. Similarily, Dr. Jeffery Johansen (John Carroll University) re-examined samples with taxa now considered members of the genus Homoeothrix.



 
Twelfth NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy
February 26-29, 2004
 
Introduction

      The Twelfth NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy was held at the Academy Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP) on February 26-29, 2004. Workshop participants were Dr. Peter A. Siver from Connecticut College, Connecticut; Dr. Rex R. Lowe, from Bowling Green State University, Ohio; Kalina M. Manoylov, from Michigan State University, Michigan; Paul B. Hamilton from the Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Canada; Mark B. Edlund from the Science Museum of Minnesota, Minnesota; Nadezhda Slavchova from Oregon State University, Oregon; Isabelle Lavoie from Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada; and Dr. Sarah A. Spaulding from University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. Dr. Marina G. Potapova, Dr. Eduardo A. Morales, Dr. Donald F. Charles, Diane M. Winter, Karin C. Ponader, Frank W. Acker, and Mark Schadler from the Patrick Center for Environmental Research’s Phycology Section at ANSP also participated in the workshop and/or collaborated in its organization.

      The twelfth workshop dealt with fragilarioid diatoms, especially small taxa that are difficult to identify under LM or are poorly illustrated in the literature.  An annotated list of problematic species compiled from the NAWQA 2001-Start taxa arranged into complexes was sent to participants for their opinions. After an e-mail based discussion a final list of complexes was agreed upon and each participant prepared a presentation on a complex of their choice:

Complex 1 (Presented by N. Slavchova and K. Manoylov)
Staurosira construens and allies

Complex 2 (Presented by M. Edlund, E. Morales and S. Spaulding)
Staurosira elliptica and allies

Complex 3 (Presented E. Morales and K. Manoylov)
Staurosirella leptostauron and allies

Complex 4 (Presented by P. Hamilton and P. Siver)
Staurosirella pinnata and allies

Complex 5 (Presented by R. Lowe)
Fragilaria capucina and allies

      Each participant gave a one-hour presentation (including discussion) on the taxonomic history and particular problems with taxa included in his/her complex. Additionally, Dr. Morales gave a presentation entitled "Current trends in fragilarioid diatom taxonomy" in which some of the latest advances in the taxonomy of these organisms were covered. Also, Isabelle Lavoie gave a presentation on the fragilarioids she found as part of her doctorate work in the St. Lawrence River watershed, Canada.

      Presentations were followed by laboratory sessions in which NAWQA and ANSP Diatom Herbarium materials were analyzed using LM. During these laboratory sessions, images were taken using digital cameras and results were discussed at the end of each afternoon. Notes from the presentations and laboratory discussions, and the pictures taken during the laboratory sessions, constituted the material upon which the chapters contained in this volume were based. Participants also received raw or cleaned sample material for further SEM analysis. Resulting images are also included in the chapters.



 
Thirteenth NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy
December 9-12, 2004
 
Introduction

      The Thirteenth NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy was held at the Academy Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP) on December 9-12, 2004. Workshop participants were Kalina Manoylov, from Michigan State University, MI; Paul B. Hamilton from the Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa; Nadia Gillett from Oregon State University, OR; Isabelle Lavoie from Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario; and Dr. Sarah Spaulding from the University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. Dr. Marina G. Potapova, Dr. Eduardo A. Morales, Dr. Donald F. Charles, Diane M. Winter, Karin C. Ponader, Sarah Hamsher, Erin Hagan, Frank W. Acker, and Mark Schadler from the Patrick Center for Environmental Research’s Phycology Section at ANSP also participated in the workshop and/or collaborated in its organization.

      The Thirteenth Workshop dealt with the taxonomy of taxa related to Synedra ulna (Nitzsch) Ehrenberg. Synedra ulna and similar complexes of araphid diatoms require substantial revision and the treatment of this group is not clear in existing literature.

      An electronic version of the list of species related to S. ulna complexes and included in the NAWQA 2001-Start taxa list was sent to workshop participants before the workshop. They were asked to give their comments and identify issues related to each of the species. The comments were then compiled and sent back to participants for further comments. Participants were also asked to look at their own material and compile a list of observations/problems that they might have liked to discuss during the workshop and that might have shed some light into the taxonomy of treated taxa.

      A set of slides was then retrieved from the ANSP Diatom Herbarium. These slides were reported to contain populations of the taxa included in the NAWQA list.  Slides containing material from different geographical areas were chosen to reflect the widest variation possible for each taxon to be analyzed.

      The workshop itself mainly consisted of laboratory sessions, which ran during most of the day, followed by a presentation session in which data collected for the day were summarized. Several presentations also took place during the first day of the workshop. Donald F. Charles gave the presentation “NAWQA Diatom Taxonomy Reports, Evolution and Report Organization” in which he gave an overview of the workshops organized until then, scope, importance, and implications. He also introduced the new workshop format applied to the Tenth report that will be used in subsequent reports.

      Paul B. Hamilton and Eduardo A. Morales prepared the presentation “Fragilariales: on Ulnaria and its Relationship to Synedra and Fragilaria” in which several aspects of fragilarioid diatom taxonomy were treated and a literature review of the problems distinguishing Ulnaria from other fragilarioid genera was presented.

      Marina Potapova gave the presentation “Synedra ulna and Related Taxa: Ecological Data and Occurrence in the NAWQA and ANSP Counts” in which she gave an overview of the use of the taxa names contained in the NAWQA list by different analysts and different ecological data for several of the Synedra ulna-like taxa calculated using the NAWQA dataset.

      Kalina M. Manoylov and Nadia Gillett each gave a presentation on “Synedra ulna-like Taxa.” They concentrated on a literature review and contrasted the concepts used by different authors.

      Finally, Isabelle Lavoie presented images of Synedra ulna and allies from Canada, part of her dissertation concentrating on the development of indicators for Canadian rivers.

      During the workshop, Eduardo A. Morales, Kalina M. Manoylov, Nadia Gillett, with the help of Paul B. Hamilton and Karin C. Ponader, prepared a presentation based on a literature review of each of the taxa treated herein. This presentation incorporated iconotypes and a pictorial account of the concept of several authors. To a large extent, this presentation served as a basis for the “Literature review” section of this report. This presentation is included here as Appendix 1. Additionally, Eduardo A. Morales and Kalina M. Manoylov prepared a presentation based on images of specimens used by Patrick and Reimer (1966) as models for diagrams presented in the Diatoms of North America flora. This presentation is included here as Appendix 2.



 
Fourteenth NAWQA Soft Algae Workshop
January 14 - 16, 2004
 
Introduction

      To be added (report nearly complete).



 
Fifteenth NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy
April 28-May 1, 2005
 
Introduction

      The Fifteenth NAWQA Diatom Taxonomy Workshop was held at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia on April 28-May 1, 2005. Specialists participating in the workshop were Kalina Manoylov from Michigan State University, MI; Nadezhda Slavchova and Rosalina Topalova from Portland State University, OR; Diane M. Winter from University of Nebraska, NB; Dr. Rex L. Lowe from Bowling Green State University, OH; Dr. Mark B. Edlund from the Science Museum of Minnesota, MN; Paul B. Hamilton from the Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa; and Dr. Sarah Spaulding from University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. Dr. Marina G. Potapova, Dr. Eduardo A. Morales, Dr. Donald F. Charles, Karin C. Ponader, Sarah Hamsher, Erin Hagan, Frank W. Acker, Mark Schadler and Kathleen Sprouffske from the Patrick Center for Environmental Research’s Phycology Section at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia also participated in the workshop and/or collaborated in its organization.

      The Fifteenth Workshop, subject of this report, focused on the revision of the 2001-Start diatom taxa list to produce the 2004-Start list to be used in the analysis of samples collected in 2004 and subsequent years. This revision was based on discussions of recent transfers of taxa and the review of recent concepts of taxa at the family, genus and species levels.

      All the new genera published in the literature and pertinent to updating the 2001-Start NAWQA Diatom Taxa List were reviewed by workshop participants. The updated list, known as the 2004-Start list, records the consensus of participants decisions as to whether to adopt proposed changes, and includes annotations with justifications and/or helpful comments. This list is presented in Appendix 1. A complete list of official names to be used by NAWQA analysts appears in Appendix 2. Names will be added to this list from time to time as new species are encountered during sample analysis, but they must first be approved by the Taxonomic Coordinator (E. Morales) following procedures and criteria in Appendix 1 of the Fifth NAWQA Report (Morales, 2001b).

      Both Appendices 1 and 2 are presented at the end of this report. Appendix 3 contains changes additional to those presented in Appendix 1 and that were compiled after the workshop.



 
Sixteenth NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy
May 11-14, 2006
 
Introduction

      The Sixteenth NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy was held at the Academy Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP) on May 11-14, 2006. Workshop participants were Kalina Manoylov and Nadia Ognianova, from Michigan State University, Michigan; Paul B. Hamilton from the Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa; Nadia Gillett and Christine Weilhoefer from Oregon State University, Oregon; Karin Ponader from Harvard University, Massachusetts; Dr. Mark B. Edlund from the Science Museum Minnesota, Minnesota. Dr. Marina G. Potapova, Dr. Eduardo A. Morales, Dr. Donald F. Charles, Diane M. Winter, Sarah Hamsher, Erin Hagan, Frank W. Acker, and Mark Schadler from the Patrick Center for Environmental Research’s Phycology Section at ANSP also participated in the workshop and/or collaborated in its organization. R. Rex Lowe from Bowling Green State University, Ohio also participated in the workshop preparing and sending a presentation about one of the complexes (see below).

      The sixteenth workshop dealt with problematic taxa in the genus Cymbella Agardh. Several complexes within this genus have an uncertain taxonomy in the literature and a review of NAWQA material to ensure consistent counts among analysts was required.

      Three complexes were identified as those causing more problems to analysts during analysis of NAWQA samples. Some participants (usually those not directly involved in the analysis of NAWQA samples) were asked to chose one complex and prepare presentations including taxonomic background of the taxa they chose, as well as the taxonomic difficulties and problems with those taxa highlighted in the literature. Other participants (analysts of NAWQA material) were asked to prepare presentations based on a survey of NAWQA material for the complex of their choice. Material from the ANSP Diatom Herbarium was selected to reflect the widest geographical variation possible and sent to the latter participants in cases in which they did not have access to it.



 
Seventeenth NAQWA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy
December 15-17, 2006
 
Introduction

      The Seventeenth USGS NAWQA workshop on Harmonization of Soft Algae Taxonomy was held at the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia (ANSP) on December 15-17, 2006. The participants were Dr. Rex R. Lowe from Bowling Green State University, Dr. Jeffrey Johansen from John Carroll University, Dr. Kalina M. Manoylov from Michigan State University, Franco Tobias from Florida International University, Dr. Julie Hambrook Berkman from the USGS Water Division Office in Columbus, OH, Dr. Hunter Carrick from Pennsylvania State University, and Frank W. Acker, Dr. Ling Ren, Dr. Marina G. Potapova, Dr. Donald F. Charles, Jackie White-Reimer, and Jason T. Zalack from the Phycology Section of the Patrick Center for Environmental Research (PCER) at ANSP. Frank Acker planned and organized the workshop. Mark Schadler and Maria Eife helped make arrangements. Ling Ren did most of the work preparing this final report.     

      Workshops on harmonization of algal taxonomy are held on a regular basis as part of Cooperative Agreements between the ANSP and the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The aims of the workshops are to keep taxonomy lists used for the analysis of NAWQA samples regularly updated and to discuss and resolve specific taxonomic issues. Three workshops on non-diatom algae have been held at the ANSP: the Ninth (December 13-15, 2002), Eleventh (November 21-24, 2003) and Fourteenth (January 14-16, 2005).

      The objectives of this workshop were to review and update certain taxa groups in the 2004-start list of soft-algae by investigating the soft-algae taxa from the NAWQA Ozark Plateaus (OZRK) and Southern Florida (SOFL) study units. Another aim was to develop guidelines for analysts to identify common taxa in NAWQA samples. We chose the OZRK and SOFL study units for the reason that samples from these study units contain the highest diversity of soft-algae in all NAWQA study units investigated to date. By examining the samples from these study units, scientists were able to observe a wide variety of the most abundant identified and unidentified soft-algae in a relatively short time.

      The workshop consisted of two sessions: the first focused on taxa found in samples from the Ozark Plateaus (OZRK) study unit; the second focused on taxa from the Southern Florida (SOFL) study unit. Both sessions included presentations, laboratory observations and discussions at the end of each session. See Appendix 1 for the workshop agenda. The presentations covered an introduction to river systems in the two study units and problems with taxa from the samples (Frank Acker’s OZRK presentation is included as Appendix 3).

      Two taxonomic groups of algae were studied intensively: Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and Chlorophyta (green algae). Unless specified otherwise, notes on taxonomy in the following sections, and confirmations of Cyanobacteria species, were made by Dr. Jeffrey Johansen. Those of green algae were made and confirmed by Dr. Rex Lowe. Notes from the presentations and discussions, together with images and notes from laboratory observations are presented in this report. Notes by Drs. Johansen and Lowe are supplemented by basic information on genera taken by Ling Ren from literature references.

      Dr. Jeffrey Johansen was inspired by the workshop and returned to the Academy from late March to early April to review blue-green colonial coccoids and Homoeothrix and focused particularly on resolving Homoeothrix taxonomic issues in NAWQA samples.  He examined NAWQA samples from various study units and developed a key to the Homoeothrix species that are often seen in NAWQA samples. Descriptions and plates of Homoeothrix species are included in Appendix 7. His work should be used by analysts to identify Homoeothrix species in NAWQA samples.



 
Eighteenth NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy
April 27-29, 2007
 
Introduction

      The Eighteenth NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy was held at the Academy Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP) on April 27-29, 2007. Workshop participants were Becky Bixby, University of New Mexico, Peter A. Siver, Connecticut College, Connecticut; Rex R. Lowe and Paula Furey, Bowling Green State University, Kalina M. Manoylov, (Nadja Ognyanova), Michigan State University, Paul B. Hamilton, the Canadian Museum of Nature, Mark B. Edlund, the Science Museum of Minnesota, Karin C. Ponader, Harvard University, Sarah A. Spaulding, University of Colorado, Marina G. Potapova, Donald F. Charles, Frank W. Acker, Jason Zalack, Michaela Enache, and Ling Ren, Patrick Center for Environmental Research, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

      The goal of the workshop was to evaluate species identifications in the genus Aulacoseira Twaites in the NAWQA dataset, to recommend data changes if necessary, and to provide materials that would facilitate identification and that would help in achieving taxonomic consistency in the future analyses of the NAWQA data. Aulacoseira is one of the most common freshwater diatom taxa, especially abundant in plankton of lakes and large rivers. Although the majority of the NAWQA samples were collected from streams and small or middle-sized rivers, our preliminary estimates showed that representatives of Aulacoseira were encountered in 1402 (27%) of all quantitative NAWQA samples. Analysts often experienced difficulties with identification of Aulacoseira because in most NAWQA samples relative abundance of this genus was low and analysts did not have sufficient opportunities to familiarize themselves with taxonomic problems in this genus. Aulacoseira species are also difficult to identify because many morphological characters are insufficiently described, misinterpreted, or omitted in literature (Egdar 2003). Given the potential of Aulacoseira species as indicators of environmental conditions, it is important to ensure consistency of their identification.



 
Nineteenth USGS NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy
Soft-Algae of the Northeast and mid-Atlantic US
December 14-16, 2007
 
Introduction

      The Nineteenth USGS NAWQA Workshop on Harmonization of Algal Taxonomy was held at the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia (ANSP) on December 14-16, 2007. The participants included Dr. Jeff Johansen from John Carroll University, Dr. Kalina Manoylov from Georgia College and State University, Dr. Julie Hambrook Berkman from the USGS Water Division Office in Columbus, OH, Julie Heiblein from Michigan State University, Dr. Hunter Carrick from Pennsylvania State University, and Frank Acker, Dr. Ling Ren, Dr. Marina Potapova, and Dr. Donald Charles from the Phycology Section of the Patrick Center for Environmental Research (PCER) at ANSP. Dr. R. Jan Stevenson from Michigan State University took part in a telephone conference call on the second day of the workshop to discuss a proposal for an algal taxonomy certification program. Dr. Ruth Patrick attended the first day of the workshop. Frank Acker planned and organized the workshop. Maria Eife and Judie Marie Roszek helped make arrangements.

      The objective of the Nineteenth Workshop was to investigate several problematic several soft-algae taxa identified in previous NAWQA sample analyses. The main targeted algal groups included the Tapinothrix/Homoeothrix/Calothrix complex, Phormidium species, Stigonematales, Rhodophytes, and some problematic green algae.

      During the workshop, experts presented overviews of taxonomy and identification issues for each targeted group. This was followed by sample re-examination in the laboratory. See Appendix 1 for the workshop agenda. During the presentation session, Frank Acker gave the presentation on taxonomic problems in determination of Phormidium and some small Oscillatorales. The presentations about Tapinothrix/Homoeothrix and the review of the order Stigonematales were given by Dr. Jeff Johansen. Dr. Kalina Manoylov reviewed the genus Calothrix and issues in sample identifications. Dr. Julie Hambrook Berkman gave a presentation on freshwater Rhodophytes. Dr. Ling Ren reviewed image documentation and identifications of several green algal taxa in the previous NAWQA samples and counts, including Protoderma viride and Protococcus viridis.

      There are six chapters included in this report. They were contributed by the participants who gave the presentation on each problematic algal group. Chapters One and Two were contributed by Dr. Jeff Johansen. Chapter One is a manuscript by Johansen et al., documenting the most widespread and easily diagnosed Homeothrix species in North America, transferring these taxa to Tapinothrix, and describing a new species, Tapinothrix ozarkiana sp. nov.. The keys therein should be used as the guide to identify T. varians, T. janthina and T. ozarkiana in future NAWQA sample analysis. Chapter Two is a thorough review of the order Stigonematales including recommendations for identification of Stigonematalean taxa regarding NAWQA counts. Chapter Three by Dr. Kalina Manoylov describes some of the most commonly seen Calothrix species in NAWQA counts. In chapter Four, Frank Acker and Dr. Hunter Carrick reviewed four Phormidium species commonly seen in NAWQA samples. Chapter Five is a brief review of freshwater Rhodophytes by Dr. Julie Hambrook Berkman, including morphology, ecology and references helpful to NAWQA analysts on red algal identification. It also contains images of Compsopogon coeruleus and Batrachospermum helminthosum, which can help NAWQA analysts to identify these two taxa. In Chapter Six, Dr. Ling Ren reviews the taxonomy of Protococcus viridis and Protoderma viride found in NAWQA samples that had a high abundance of these two species. Plates and images related to each topic are placed at the end of each chapter. In total, there are 21 plates and 94 images.

      There are six appendices in the report, including the agenda (Appendix 1) and five PowerPoint presentations (Appendix 2 to 6).



 
Twentieth NAWQA Soft Algae Workshop
September 26 - 28, 2008
 
Introduction

      To be added (report in preparation).